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Australia on the Western Front

The Western Front, which ran across the industrial regions of France and Belgium, was one of the most important battlegrounds during the First World War.

It is where great battles were fought and where more than 295,000 Australians served during March 1916 to November 1918.

During those 33 months, more than 30 battles were fought, including Fromelles, the Somme, Bullecourt, Messines, Passchendaele and Villers-Bretonneux. Australia’s losses on the Western Front were staggering, with more casualties in the first six weeks of our involvement than the entire eight-month Gallipoli campaign.

By the end of 1918, 46,000 Australians had lost their lives and 132,000 were wounded.

Our history records no greater example of Australian sacrifice and for this reason, the bravery of our soldiers on the Western Front deserves to be remembered.

Together let’s honour those who served on the Western Front.

Learn more about the battle for Mouquet Farm.

Unidentified men of the Australian 5th Division enjoying a smoke and rest by the side of the Montauban road, near Mametz, France, while en-route to the trenches.
Image courtesy of the Australian War Memorial E00019. Colourised and researched by Benjamin Thomas from Australia.

Interesting Western Front facts to share with friends and family

  • Australia was involved in 29 battles on the Western Front.
  • Nine Queensland Battalions served on the Western Front over 33 months. Source AWM
  • There’s a town in Queensland called Pozieres. Originally a soldier settlement village, it took the name Pozieres after the First World War to commemorate the selfless contributions made by the men and women who served in France.
  • Famous people who served on the Western Front include J.R.R Tolkien (author The Hobbit and Lord of The Rings), A.A Milne (author of Winnie the Pooh), Wilfred Owen (British poet) and Claude Rains (Hollywood actor).
  • Every minute of the Battle of Fromelles, nine Australian soldiers were either killed, wounded or taken prisoner. This battle lasted for only 10 hours overnight on 19-20 July 1916.
  • There were enough trenches dug to stretch around the Australian coastline 1.3 times (40,234 kilometres). The trenches were often dug in zig zag patterns and given names by the soldiers like Bond Street and Death Valley.
  • The first skin grafting and plastic surgery techniques were used in Sidcup France, 1917 to give soldiers a second chance at life.
  • 55 Australians were awarded the Victoria Cross, the highest award for acts of bravery in wartime, on the Western Front including Queenslander Pte John Leak for his actions during the Battle of Pozieres.
  • Australians first saw the use of tanks in a battlefield on the Western Front. Tanks were split into males (armed with cannons) and females (with machine guns).
  • Over time the amount of food given to soldiers was reduced but a common meal in the trenches was maconochie – a tinned stew of meat turnips, potatoes and carrots. Other rations included bully beef, hard biscuits and tea.
  • 2800 sets of Australian brothers perished between 1915 and 1918 at Gallipoli, Palestine and the Western Front. The six Keid brothers of Graceville, Brisbane all enlisted for the First World and tragically only two came home. Leonard and Bennett Keid died the day after eachother on the Western Front.
  • It is said that one of the men serving as a message runner in the German 6th Bavarian Division on the Western Front was Adolf Hitler who at that time was an Austrian Lance Corporal.
  • German trenches were in stark contrast to British trenches. German trenches were built to last and included bunk beds, furniture, cupboards, water tanks with faucets, electric lights, and even doorbells in some instances.
  • Germans were the first to use posion gas during the war (release of a chemical gas such as chlorine from pressurised cylinders). The Australian Imperial Force (AIF) experienced gas attacks on the Western Front but the gas masks used to save lives also caused fatalities. The masks hampered the movement of men inducing disorientation and fatigue.
  • 60% of all casualties on the Western Front came from artillery shell fire. Shell Shock was a term used during the First World War to describe the psychological trauma suffered by many on the frontline.

1916: Australia joins the campaign on the Western Front.

Together let’s honour those who served on the Western Front

100 years on we will shine a light on those who fell on the Western Front. You can play a role by sharing this commemorative flame which represents the sacrifice of those who served not just on the western Front, but in all wars.

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Licence
Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Australia (CC BY-ND 3.0)
Last updated
13 September, 2016

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